Archive for September 2009

The Ethicist and the Gamer Part II   4 comments

And when you thought a story was just a story

And when you thought a story was just a story

Welcome to the adventure! Last week there was:

“…culture arises in the form of play, that it is played from the very beginning…”

That brings another needed task, breaking down the story of Tiku and the One and the Other-One.  This created myth is an amalgam of older myths, but with a twist-a modern element thrown in.  Let’s break it down.

In the pristine, pure beginning we had two people who cared for each other and loved each other regardless of differences.  Then a third character comes in and introduces doubt into the world.  Rather than choosing to ignore the bird and it’s offer, the man thinks they could have more happiness or could be missing something.  This is not necessarily a negative thought, but what is the crux of the story is why this bird out of the blue is offering the Ultimate Life to them.

We find out later that the bird is doing so, because someone did it to them, so of course others must suffer.  But why must others suffer?

In a modern twist (to be discussed in Part III), the man and woman must suffer because of course the Tiku bird must have a reason to rationalize it’s pain and dislike of others.  The rule is:

“If I have suffered, you must suffer too.”

Sound familiar?  Or in the Judeo Christian concept, it is a takeoff of the orignal sin, so the rule is: 

“One person made a mistake, so all must suffer for it”

A Buddhist might think:

“Life is hard, so we must learn to let go of our ego and detach from the suffering, but it is unavoidable”

And we could go on,  the important thing to remember is that these rules evolved from stories, or at least the stories were created to understand the rules.

The hidden rule in this story is that when one person suffers and chooses not to let go of that suffering, then others must suffer to make them feel justified, guilty or not.   The other rule that rose from that rule is that all men for ever and ever will in some way be a slave to women.  Of course in our world the opposite occurred.

Rules, you say?  But these are great epic stories, some the foundation of our religions and societies.  And to that, I say:  “EXACTLY!”

Read the first quote at the beginning of part II.

It is true that some stories have atonement, giving the ability for persons in the story to redeem themselves in someway.   That is another rule. Atonement, by the way, is actually meant as “At onement”. To be at one with Christ’s suffering and to be redeemed.  That’s as close to a religious discussion as we will have here.  Remember we’re looking at the construct of games, society, relationship and rules.

Does society have rules?  Yes and there are hidden as well as unhidden rules.  Rules change according to the culture, but most rules find commonality.  The most common is:

“Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”

In game theory this is called the Ethic of Reciprocity.  You have the right to just treatment and you must ensure justice for others.  It is the basic element of all human rights.

Confucianism states:

“Never impose on others what you would not choose for yourself”


“Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you”

and so forth.

Watch how children play, or adults, or if you want to really observe another culture, watch dogs play.  A dog will go into a butt-up/head down play position to attract another companion to play.  If the invitation is not accepted they will perhaps try with a bump to the other dog, and that may work, or the other dog will just saunter off.  If one dog unjustly attacks another dog, that dog will not be played with.

Listen to how children construct their play or remember your friends behavior from playing Monopoly.  What are the rules? How do humans behave?

Next week, a focus on rules and stories.

To be continued . . .

Thank you.


The Ethicist and the Gamer   3 comments


Culture and Games

Culture and Games

I ‘m a ludologist and game theorist.  No, that is not the same as a Luddite.  In fact I principally work with computer or digital games, so being a Luddite is quite out of the question.

People ask and they even ask me from time to time, “What can we do about these violent video games?”  Or traveling on the plane or train,when finding out what I do for a living they become angry  at me and suggest that I not try to censor their freedom of speech.  Which I’m not, by the way, trying to censor anyone that is.  When confronted with comments such as what are the impacts of computer games, we need to step back and take a detached, holistic view.  We need to first ask what is the relationship of games to society, to culture and to the rest of us.

The most perfect concept of a game is from Johan Huizinga, the author of Homo Ludens, (Man the Player).

“…culture arises in the form of play, that it is played from the very beginning…”

When we were children, regardless of your age, play was the primary component of your life.  Whether you lived in the depression of the late 30’s or years of Pac-Man and now even more sophisticated gaming devices,  the transport of games have changed.

Whereas a game of “kick the can” with your old friends could entertain you with challenges and leave everyone laughing, and hopefully being “good sports”, Pac-Man was a more solitary game, with perhaps a friend or two cheering you on.

Games though, embrace stories, or mythologies.  The ancient Greek games replicated the games of the gods and the games were thought to appease those same gods.

Here we have the human-god-game connection.  Did the belief of playing games to appease the gods come out of Greek culture, or did the playing of games so make the ancient Greeks happy and healthy that of course it must appease the gods?

What is the story here?  Does the story affect the play or the play affect the story?

In that light, let us try a thought experiment.

Have a cup of tea, sit down in a comfortable place, cozy up with your blanket and listen to a story.

Now, relax and listen/read.

A long long time ago, there were two people.  Different they were but of the same species.  They lived happily, gathering food, enjoying the sunshine, living in bliss.  One day, a tiku bird alighted upon a tree in the center of the garden.  It crowed about how the two did not really know what life was about and that they lived in ignorance of the Ultimate Life.

They stopped, being polite as they were, and listened to the tiku bird.  They asked about the Ultimate Life and how it would be different from the one they now lead.  The tiku bird laughed and said that they would understand everything and have so much power that they would enjoy themselves immensely.

One asked, “But weren’t they enjoying themselves immensely now?”

The tiku laughed again and said:  “How would you know if you didn’t experience the Ultimate Life?”

The other one of the species said:  “We will have to think about it.  Thank you honored one and we will go now.”

The one who had asked the first question became curious in a way that was different from other curiosities; like watching a flower bloom, or a turtle swim back into the sea after hatching.  This one worried that they might be missing something, they also worried about this new feeling and they were frightened to mention this to the other-one.  So instead of mentioning this feeling and their concern about it, they kept asking other questions.

“My love” they said “What if we never know what the Ultimate Life is?  What if we live this life, but lack something.  What if we could love each other in a way that is better from the way we do now?”

Finally, the other-one gave in.  “My beloved, if you so want to experience the Ultimate Life, I will think about it.  But like the thunder in the sky before the rain comes to quench our thirst, I wonder if this thunder is warning us instead of a large wind which causes damage.  That is what my heart says.  Yet, if this causes you so much distress we can try the Ultimate Life.”

Next morning they walked back to the tree where they found the tiku bird perching.  The tiku bird was nervously walking back and forth and when the tiku saw the two it quickly alighted on the lower branch.

“So”, it said.  “You have made up your minds.  You want to live the Ultimate Life?”

The other-one, answered. “No, we just want to try the Ultimate Life.”

The tiku bird paced and paced and finally said.  “All right you can just try the Ultimate Life.  Take the mango from the tree and each of you take a bite.”

The one carefully took the mango from the tree and took one bite and offered it to the other-one.  The other-one hesitated, then bit into the sweet fruit and then they suddenly dropped it.  The both looked around and noticed that instead of the sweet sunshine and sometimes rain, the sun looked harsh upon the land and the thunder rumbled deeply in the distance.

The tiku bird laughed.  “Now there is no going back.  Everyday you will have to work to see the world in the way that you once did, that you will have to work to care for each other, but you will notice that there is now harshness in the world.”

“Why?!”  Said the other-one, “Did you do this to us?”

He swooped and laughed, crying out:  “Because someone did this to me!  Now I will not be alone in pain.”

Devastated, the one and the other-one looked at each other and they noticed they were different, the one was male and the other-one was female.  Before their hearts were in harmony and nothing else mattered. Now everything mattered.

“You!  You did this!”  The other-one female yelled.  “I will never forgive you.”

The one-male was hurt and frightened.  “I didn’t mean to.  I felt concerned and worried that we could have more.”

“I will make certain that you will pay for this.  From this day forward you are less than me.  You will be my slave.”

And so it was in some way, forever and ever.

Sound familiar?

Except for the gender switch at the end, this myth like many others, explains a certain culture but also reinforces it.

“Culture arises in and out of play”.  Johan Huizinga.

Now, think about the story above and others like them and how they have impacted society.
Think about how you felt when you didn’t know the genders.

Think about the different societies and about the roles of  men and women.

Think about how different societies embrace their religion.

Does each society have a different story or set of stories attached to it?

To be Continued…